The World’s Deadliest Storms

10. Hurricane San Ciriaco 1899

Hurricane San Ciriaco, also known as the 1899 Puerto Rico Hurricane, San Ciriaco Hurricane, or 1899 Hurricane San Ciriaco, was an intense and long-lived Atlantic Cape Verde-type hurricane which crossed Puerto Rico over the two day period August 8 to August 9, 1899, causing many deaths from the flooding.

It kept tropical storm strength or higher for 28 days, which makes it the longest duration Atlantic hurricane on record and the second-longest anywhere in the world.

The tropical storm that later ravaged Puerto Rico developed on August 3 in the tropical Atlantic. It moved in a west-northwest direction, becoming a hurricane on the 5th. As it neared the northern Lesser Antilles, it strengthened into a major hurricane, bringing heavy winds to Dominica, St. Kitts, and Guadeloupe on the 7th. It continued to intensify to its peak of 150 mph before hitting southeast Puerto Rico on the 8th. It crossed the island in an east-southeast to west-northwest direction, causing maximum wind speeds between 110 and 140 mph throughout. After it passed Puerto Rico, it brushed northern Dominican Republic as a Category 3 hurricane, but passed north enough to not cause major damage.

It passed through the Bahamas, retaining its strength as it moved slowly northward. After drifting northeastward, the hurricane turned northwestward, hitting the Outer Banks on August 17. It drifted northeastward over the state, re-emerging into the Atlantic on the 19th. It continued eastward, where it became extra-tropical on the 22nd. The extra-tropical cyclone turned southeastward where, on August 26, it became a tropical storm again. Like most of the rest of its lifetime, it drifted, first to the northwest then to the east. It strengthened as it moved eastward, and on September 3, as it was moving through the Azores, it again became a hurricane. The intensification didn’t last long, and the hurricane became extra-tropical for good on the 4th. It dissipated that day while racing across the northeastern Atlantic. Estimates of people killed range from 3,100 to 3,400, with millions of dollars in crop damage in Puerto Rico. North Carolina fared a little better, but still had considerable tobacco and corn damage from the longevity of the strong winds and rain, making this hurricane the 10th deadliest in history.

9. 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane

The Okeechobee Hurricane or Hurricane San Felipe Segundo was a deadly hurricane that struck the Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, the Bahamas, and Florida in September 1928.

It was the first recorded hurricane to reach Category 5 status and as of 2006, it remains the only recorded hurricane to strike Puerto Rico at Category 5 strength. The hurricane caused devastation throughout its path, as many as 1,200 people were killed in Guadeloupe, Puerto Rico struck directly by the storm at peak strength, killed at least 300 and leaving hundreds of thousands homeless. The 160 mph (260 km/h) wind measurement from Puerto Rico was taken by a cup anemometer in San Juan, 30 miles (50 km) north of the storm’s center, which measured 160 mph (260 km/h) sustained winds three hours before the peak wind speed was reached; however, the instrument was destroyed soon after and could not be calibrated. The hurricane was also extremely large as it crossed Puerto Rico. Hurricane-force winds were measured in Guayama for 18 hours; since the storm is estimated to have been moving at 13 mph (21 km/h), the diameter of the storm’s hurricane winds was estimated very roughly to be 234 miles (376 km). At least 10 inches (250 mm) of rain was dropped over the entire island. Official reports stated that “several hundred thousand” people were left homeless, and property damages were estimated at $50 million 1928 US dollars.

The eye of the hurricane passed just south of Grand Bahama as a strong Category 4 hurricane, again causing very heavy damage. Unlike Puerto Rico, authorities in the Bahamas were aware of the hurricane’s passage well ahead of time, and preparations minimized the loss of life in the islands.

In south Florida at least 2,500 were killed when storm surge from Lake Okeechobee breached the dike surrounding the lake, flooding an area covering hundreds of square miles. Coastal damage in Florida near the point of landfall was catastrophic. Miami, well south of the point of landfall, escaped with very little damage; Hollywood and Fort Lauderdale suffered only slight damages.

Northward, from Pompano Beach to Jupiter, buildings suffered serious damage from the heavy winds and 10 ft (3 meter) storm surge, which was heaviest in the vicinity of Palm Beach; total coastal damages were estimated as “several million” dollars. Because of the well-issued hurricane warnings, residents were prepared for the storm, and the loss of life in the coastal Palm Beach area was only 26.

Inland, the hurricane wreaked much more widespread destruction along the more heavily populated coast of Lake Okeechobee. Residents had been warned to evacuate the low ground earlier in the day, but the hurricane did not arrive on schedule so people returned to their homes. The worst of the storm crossed the lake with winds measured on the ground at around 140 mph (225 km/h) — the south-blowing wind caused a storm surge to overflow the small dike that had been built at the south end of the lake. The resulting flood covered an area of hundreds of square miles with water in some places over 20 ft (6 m) deep. Houses floated off of their foundations and destroyed hitting any obstacle they encountered. Most survivors and bodies were washed out into the Everglades where many of the bodies were never found. As the rear eye wall passed over the area, the flood reversed itself, breaking the dikes along the northern coast of the lake and causing a similar but smaller flood.

Floodwaters persisted for several weeks, impeding attempts to clean up the devastation. Burial services were quickly overwhelmed, and many of the bodies were placed into mass graves. The Red Cross estimated the number of fatalities as 1,836, which was taken as the official count by the National Weather Service for many years; older sources usually list 3,411 as the total count of fatalities, including the Caribbean. However, in 2003 this was revised as “at least” 2,500, making the Okeechobee hurricane 9th deadliest hurricane. In total, the hurricane killed at least 4,075 people and caused around $100 million 1928 US dollars in damages over the course of its path.

8. Newfoundland Hurricane of 1775

A letter from New Bern, North Carolina recounted, “We had a violent hurricane…which has done a vast deal of damage here, at the Bar, and at Matamuskeet, near 150 lives being lost at the Bar, and 15 in one neighborhood at Matamuskeet.”

The Newfoundland Hurricane of 1775 is also known as the Independence Hurricane. It was a hurricane that hit Newfoundland in September of 1775 and is believed to have killed at least 4,000 people.

A storm struck the eastern coast of Newfoundland on September 9, 1775. It is uncertain if this storm was the remnants of the hurricane that had crossed the Outer Banks over a week earlier; if so, it was probably extra tropical by this time.

Newfoundland’s fisheries “received a very severe stroke from the violence of the wind, which almost swept everything before it,” the colonial governor Richard Duff wrote shortly after it struck. “A considerable number of boats, with their crews, have been totally lost, several vessels wrecked on the shores,” he said. Ocean levels rose to heights “scarcely ever known before” and caused great devastation, Duff reported.

A total of 4,000 sailors, mostly from England and Ireland, were reported to have been drowned, a localized storm surge is reported to have reached heights of between 20 and 30 feet. Losses from the hurricane include many fishing boats and two armed schooners of the Royal Navy, who were on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland to enforced Britain’s fishing rights.

The hurricane is Atlantic Canada’s first recorded hurricane and Canada’s most tragic natural disaster (and by far the deadliest hurricane to ever hit Canada), as well as the eighth deadliest hurricane in history.

7. Atlantic hurricane 1766

In 1766 there was a severe hurricane in Jamaica around the islands of the West Indies. Captain John Leaycroft, who was a member of the Leaycraft family of Beaufort North Carolina, was in Jamaica days afterwards and his report was published in the Virginia Gazette on 24th October 1766. His claim says “it came in at 10am continued without abating until 5pm and has done considerable damage”.

The hurricane moving northward through the Carolinas affected a Revolutionary War battle in Virginia; it caused supply ships to sink in the Chesapeake Bay area.

September 4th, 1766: The hurricane hits Galveston.

A mission named San Augustine de Ahumado, located in what is now considered Chambers County, was destroyed. Storm surges of 7 feet flooded the area. A richly-laden treasure fleet of 5 galleons en route from Vera Cruz to Havana was driven ashore and had to wait many weeks for assistance to come. Fortunately, much of the treasure and people aboard were saved.

The powerful hurricane hit Martinique on September 5.

It hit Pointe-a-Pitre Bay, Guadeloupe the next day, and caused 6000 fatalities making it the 7th deadliest hurricane in Atlantic history..

6. Hurricane Flora 1963

Hurricane Flora blasted through the Caribbean in September and October 1963.

The Category 4 system struck the southwest peninsula of Haiti on October 4, causing heavy rains and flooding. Flora hit southeast Cuba near Guantanamo Bay also on the 4th, but a high pressure system to its north and another to its west caused Flora to drift over Cuba. It reached the Caribbean again on the 6th, but it again hit Cuba on the 7th. Flora was pulled to the north-east by a trough, bringing the hurricane into the Atlantic Ocean on the 8th. Flora steadily strengthened to a 115 mph major hurricane on the 10th, but cooler water temperatures weakened Flora until it became extra tropical on the 12th.

The hurricane caused such great damage in Tobago that it changed the economy of the island from cash-crop agriculture towards tourism and fishing. Heavy crop damage was reported in Haiti, with smaller amounts of damage in Dominican Republic.

Flora left 7,193 people dead in Haiti and Cuba, making it the 6th deadliest hurricane in Atlantic history.

In addition, Flora caused a total of $528 million (1963 dollars) in damage.

5. 1930 Dominican Republic Hurricane

The 1930 Dominican Republic Hurricane was a small but intense Category 4 storm during the 1930 Atlantic hurricane season.

On August 25, a tropical storm was observed to the south of the Cape Verde islands. It moved steadily westward and attained hurricane status on August 31 while located about 495 miles east of Guadeloupe. It moved just south of due west, and strengthened into a hurricane later on the 31st. The hurricane continued to slowly strengthen, and reached winds speeds of 95 mph as it crossed the northern Lesser Antilles on September 1.

The hurricane quickly strengthened over the Caribbean Sea, and reached major hurricane status just off the southern coast of Puerto Rico on September 2. It slowed to a west-northwest drift and intensified, peaking as a Category 4 hurricane with 150 mph winds on September 3. Soon after, the intense hurricane struck southern Dominican Republic near Santo Domingo. The city experienced very intense wind gusts estimated from 180-200 mph.

While crossing Hispaniola on September 3 and September 4, the hurricane rapidly weakened over the mountainous terrain to a 70 mph tropical storm as it entered the Windward Passage. After spending less than 12 hours over waters with a severely disrupted circulation, the storm hit southeastern Cuba late on the 4th, and paralleled the southern coast of the island. It briefly emerged into the Caribbean Sea on the 5th, but moved back ashore as it continued its west-northwest motion.

On September 6, the small tropical storm reached the Gulf of Mexico. Its motion changed to a northeast drift, where it crossed Florida near Tampa Bay on September 9. It accelerated to the northeast, where it was finally able to strengthen over the warm Gulf Stream waters. On September 12, it became a hurricane again to the east of South Carolina, and reached a secondary peak of 95 mph on the 14th as it turned eastward. It weakened over the Northern Atlantic, and dissipated on September 17.

While crossing the Lesser Antilles, the hurricane had a relatively minor effect; Puerto Rico received heavy rains up to 6 inches, though an unusual occurrence happened when the southern part of the island, the part nearest to the hurricane, felt only 1-2 inches of rain.

The city of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic was nearly destroyed from the hurricane’s strong winds. The damage was estimated at $50 million USD. This tropical cyclone killed as many as 8,000 people when it crossed Hispaniola, making it the fifth deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record.

4. Hurricane Fifi 1974

Hurricane Fifi (or Hurricane Fifi-Orlene) was a catastrophic storm during the 1974 Atlantic hurricane season that made landfall in Belize. Fifi was one of the most costly hurricanes in history, causing $3.7 billion USD in damages. It was also one of the deadliest Atlantic hurricanes, killing as many as 10,000 people. Fifi was one of the few storms that crossed from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean.

Fifi, only a Category 2 hurricane at its strongest, skirted the north coast of Honduras, causing massive flooding from the inflow of southerly winds. The rains collected in rivers, which caused enormous amounts of physical and economic damage to poor villages, small towns, and commercial banana plantations when it skimmed Honduras. Most of the country’s fishing fleet was destroyed. Although estimates of the number killed range from 3,000 to 10,000, a figure of 8,000 dead is generally accepted. Most deaths may have been caused by freshwater flooding from the rainfall that accompanied the hurricane.

Hurricane Orlene

The remnants of Fifi encountered a depression and interacted with it. This triggered the development of another system. After it was named Orlene, it paralleled the coast of Mexico before reaching hurricane intensity on September 23. It made landfall near its secondary peak strength on September 23 southeast of Culiacan and dissipated shortly after that.

Hurricane Fifi is usually considered the fourth deadliest hurricane in history, though uncertainty about the number of deaths caused by Fifi and the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 could place it as the third deadliest ever.

Fifi caused a total of $900 million 1974 USD in damage

3. Galveston Hurricane of 1900

The Galveston Hurricane of 1900 made landfall on the city of Galveston, Texas, on September 8, 1900. It had estimated winds of 135 miles per hour (215 km/h) at landfall, making it a Category 4 storm. The hurricane caused great loss of life with the death toll estimated to be between 6,000 and 12,000 people. The number most cited in official reports is 8,000, giving the storm the third-highest number of casualties of any Atlantic hurricane.

Common names for the storm include the Galveston Hurricane of 1900, the Great Galveston Hurricane, and in older documentation, the Galveston Flood.

At the time of the 1900 storm, the highest point in the city of Galveston was only 8.7 feet (2.7 m) above sea level. The hurricane had brought with it a storm surge of over 15 feet (4.6 m), which washed over the entire island. The surge knocked buildings off their foundations, and the ocean pounded them to pieces.

Over 3,600 homes were destroyed, and a wall of debris faced the ocean. The few buildings which survived, mostly solid built mansions and houses along the Strand, are today maintained as tourist attractions.

2. Hurricane Mitch 1998

Hurricane Mitch was one of the deadliest and most powerful hurricanes ever observed, with maximum sustained winds of 180 mph (290 km/h). The storm was the thirteenth tropical storm, ninth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season. At the time, Mitch was the strongest Atlantic hurricane ever observed in the month of October.

Mitch formed in the western Caribbean Sea on October 22, and after drifting through extremely favorable conditions, it rapidly strengthened to peak at Category 5 status.

After drifting southwestward and weakening, the hurricane hit Honduras as a minimal hurricane. It drifted through Central America, reformed in the Bay of Campeche, and ultimately struck Florida as a strong tropical storm.

Due to its slow motion from October 29 to November 3, Hurricane Mitch dropped historic amounts of rainfall in Honduras and Nicaragua, with unofficial reports of up to 75 inches (1900 mm). Deaths due to catastrophic flooding made it the second deadliest hurricane in history; nearly 11,000 people were killed with over 8,000 left missing by the end of 1998.

The flooding caused extreme damage, estimated at over $5 billion (1998 USD).

1. Great Hurricane of 1780

The Great Hurricane of 1780 is considered the deadliest Atlantic tropical cyclone of all time. About 22,000 people died when the storm pounded Barbados, Martinique, and Saint Eustatius in the Lesser Antilles between October 10 and October 16. Thousands of deaths also occurred offshore.

The death toll from the 1780 storm alone exceeds that for any other entire decade of Atlantic hurricanes. The hurricane struck the Caribbean in the midst of the American Revolution and took a heavy toll on the British and French fleets. British Admiral George Rodney arrived from New York after the storm, finding eight of twelve warships left in Barbados totally lost and most of their crews drowned. The storm also scattered and damaged most of the fleet under his command.

The storm killed nine thousand on Martinique. While in the Lesser Antilles, it killed several thousand sailors of the Spanish, Dutch, British, and French fleets. The storm also took many lives on other islands, including Saint Lucia.

Four to five thousand lives were lost on Saint Eustatius. The storm then passed over the southwestern corner of Puerto Rico heading northwestward. It probably ranked as the most devastating in the history of the island at the time.

The hurricane passed east and north of Hispaniola around 16 October and apparently approached Florida on 17 October. It continued to produce strong northerly gales off Charleston, South Carolina as it passed to the east of the coast.

Source by Jamie Stone

Cue Stick Grooming, Cue Tips Care, & How to Maintain a Cue Stick

The most important part of any cue is the tip. Your major concern should be how well it maintains its shape and holds chalk. The tip should never be smooth or chalk deficient!

1. The tip should be shaped within a dime to nickel radius. A gauge is available with most tools.

2. If not within dime to nickel radius, place a tip shaper on the floor with the bowl side up.

3. Turn the cue upside down placing the tip of the cue into the shaper bowl.

4. Rotate the cue while pivoting the cue back and forth. Be careful not to over sand and wear the tip down too quickly. Remember, you are not sanding down the tip, simply shaping it.

5. Use a tip-pik and scuffer on the leather tip to roughen and create deep perforations for maximum chalk retention and better ball control.

6. Apply a small amount of wax to the outside edge of the tip and burnish. This helps prevent the tip from mushrooming and will sharpen your sights in relationship to the cue tip and the ball.

Shaft Maintenance

When the cue gets dirty or sticky the shaft needs to be cleaned.

1. Using No. 600 wet/dry sandpaper, white scotch bright pad or No. 0000 steel wool clean the shaft from the ferrule, down 10-15 inches.

2. Using a piece of brown paper, undyed leather or even a 20 dollar bill, burnish the shaft until it becomes hot to the touch. This gives the shaft a polished look and feel, enabling the shaft to slide smoothly through your fingers without wearing a glove.

3. Another option would be to apply a small amount of conditioner to the shaft working it down into the shaft where you have cleaned.

Additional Maintenance

1. To clean and polish the ferrule use Pearl Drop Tooth Polish with a dampened cotton cloth and twist the ferrule back and forth in the cloth between your fingers.

2. Adding a drop of silicon, shaft treatment or graphite to the joint pin will reduce friction

3. Never apply water to any part of the cue stick.

Tips on Protecting Your Investment

1. Never leave your cue stick in areas of extreme heat or cold. To do so may causes the shaft to warp.

2. Do not expose your cue to any moisture.

3. Make sure you always have the bumper on the butt end of your cue.

4. Never apply any oils to your cue. This will soften the wood and damage parts.

5. Never leave your cue unattended unless it is secure.

6. A Good Rule to Follow…Only let your cue go where you would go.

7. Always store your cue exactly upright or horizontal.

8. Always use experienced and reliable service personnel.

Source by Darren Kincaid

10 Things Every For Sale By Owner Should Know

1) Get Professional Advice. Use local Real Estate Agents for a free Home Valuation to find out your properties worth. This is a no-obligation free service; You do not have to agree to your home or use their services.

2) Invest in your Home. You should receive some pretty good feedback from Real Estate Agents and their valuations. Ask them what you can do to increase your home value?

3) Do Market Research. Read the paper, pick up Real Estate Magazines for your local area, and go to open houses with in a 5-7 block radius. Talk with others sellers in your area. Compare and contrast your House and Pricing based on your findings. There are many free internet resources available where you can dig up some great facts about homes sold in your neighborhood recently.

4) Price to Sell. Pricing your Home based on facts and not your emotional value of it, is essential in successfully getting your home sold.

5) Set a Realistic Time Frame. Manage your expectations. Look at the various factors of how the market can affect the time your home sits on the market. Factors that can affect this vary from Supply of similar Homes for sale in your neighborhood or how long it takes the average home to sell.

6) Stage Your Home. De-clutter, work on curb appeal, clean up trash, paint outside if needed, replace worn carpet, and repair broken fixtures. Stage your furniture like a Model Home or a Furniture store. Make it cozy yet inviting and clean. Allowing potential buyers to see how the space will work for them.

7) Marketing is Key. Every previous step is only activated if people know your home is for sale! Attract potential buyers. There are so many different types of Advertising. One that is really effective is listing your property on your local Multiple Listing Service which allows your home to be listed in the database of Homes for sale that Real Estate Agents use when their looking for properties for their buyers. You need to be here. There are many internet Listing services that offer packages which include this service. Only a licensed Real Estate Agent can list properties for sale here, but you can a Flat MLS fee service or another Internet listing site. I will visit this further as this step is very important.

8 ) Have Open Houses. Have cookies baking..cliché..yes! But it works, people relate to smells, have an inviting smells. This goes without saying but – clean up and make sure your home is staged. Everything mentioned in Step 6!

9) Have Forms Available. You should always have forms for potential buyers contact information for easy follow-up and advertising trackibility. Have easy to take flyers of your Home with your contact information and Property Details. Have resources available to qualify a buyer. You will need contracts. When “closing the deal” you want to look into getting professional help here.

10) Don’t Forget. A typical Sale involves:

• a home inspection,

• an appraisal,

• a survey,

• a title search,

• a termite examination,

• loan underwriting and approval,

• date of closing,

• Show me the money!

Source by Andrew J Sims

James River Smallmouth Fishing

The upper James River in Virginia offers some of the best smallmouth fishing in the country.

Fly fishermen and conventional fishermen both can enjoy the hard-fighting nature of the smallmouth in this absolutely beautiful river, which flows from the confluence of the Cowpasture and Jackson Rivers in Bath and Highland Counties, through Lynchburg and Richmond, past Williamsburg and Jamestown to the Chesapeake Bay. It’s upper sections wind through the Jefferson National Forest, cross under the Blue Ridge Parkway, and through the George Washington National Forest, along the beautiful Appalachian Mountains.

Words alone cannot describe the beauty of this stretch of river, or the thrill of landing a 4 or 5 pound smallmouth bass that call it home.

The river’s fall line runs through downtown Richmond, and anywhere upstream of there the smallmouth are plentiful year-round. This section of river also holds largemouth bass, catfish, and sunfish, and even musky, but the smallies are the predominant species, and the most fun to catch.

There are many good places to fish from the bank or wading, especially in the foothills, but float fishing in a canoe, kayak or other small boat is the best way to go for large numbers of fish. For kayak fishermen, you’d be thrilled to experience the James’ beauty and serenity, as well as the excellent smallmouth fishing that has been a mainstay of the river for decades.

For conventional fishermen, on light spinning tackle or small baitcasting gear, try small jigs or grubs in natural colors. Suspending jerkbaits like the Rapala X-Rap, and Senkos are also excellent choices. Focus on slow-moving water and the deeper pools. If the bite is slow, use smaller baits and slow down your retrieve. I also like to use small spinnerbaits, buzzbaits, and crankbaits in the warmer months, and have caught many fish on topwater poppers. Live minnows and worms will work too, but artificial lures are more feasible if your fishing from a kayak or canoe.

The fly fisherman can have so much fun fishing for smallies on the James, they might not want to go back to trout fishing! Use a 7 or 8 weight fly rod with matching floating line with a weight-forward taper and a 1x or a 0x tippet for bugs and poppers, or a sinking tip fly line and a 6 foot leader setup with strike detectors for underwater flies. A good tip to remember is the lower the water, the longer the leader. If the water is shallow, say under 3 feet, the fish will be easily spooked, so you may want to use a 9 to 12 foot leader and cast a little upstream of your target, letting the current carry the fly to the fish. Also be very quiet and move slow when approaching your fishing hole. It doesn’t take much to scare-off a fish.

Smallmouth bass dine on many different insects, but their most common cuisine includes frogs, mayflies, grasshoppers, caddisflies, damselflies, dragonflies, hellgrammites, shiners, leeches and crawfish. Just as in trout fishing, it helps to “match the hatch”, but smallmouth are not nearly as finiky as trout. Try a popping bug alongside grassbeds in the summer, and in colder water, a sinking fly cast to a gravel bar or against the bank in 2 feet of water can produce trophy-size fish.

All freshwater fish like to hang out around structure, and smallmouth are no exception. Fly fishermen and conventional anglers can use this to their advantage. Any particular boulder, rockbed, downfall, bush or weedbed is likely to be holding a fish. One trick I’ve learned is when you catch a smallmouth in a particular spot, release him and come back 3 or 4 hours later to catch the same fish again.

The Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries has an excellent float trip map as well as public boating access locations here. I highly recommend printing the page if you are going, as there are rapids and dams to avoid along the river’s 340 miles. You can buy a Virginia freshwater fishing license online here.

Whatever your style of fishing or your method of getting to them, I guarantee you will have a blast fishing for smallmouth bass in the awesome James River. Don’t forget to bring your camera, as you will be showing your family and friends not only your fish, but the incredible scenery of the river and the surrounding country.

Happy Fishing!

Source by Scott D Rogers